|Bonnie Prince Charlie held court in Holyrood for a brief moment |
The last of the Stuarts. Three
Jacobite Kings buried St Peters Basilica Rome. One dynasty, two courts. Three
kingdoms. Four Jacobite kings. Five Jacobite challenges. Through the mists of
time, romance, place, beliefs, tragedy…. I visited the excellent Jacobite exhibition at the Scottish National Museum.
*Union of the Crowns - 1603
James VI became King of England,
Ireland and Scotland.
Charles I crowned 1633 - 1649
Roundheads and Cavaliers. Cromwell. –
Lord Protector 1653.
Charles II – crowned 1660 - 1685.
James VII 1685 – 1689
|Mary of Modena|
reading of our history over the past centuries – of our close ties, trade and
involvement with Europe – well before the EU and well before the1603 Union of
If you read the monarchy entanglement
over that century and into the 18th century, what a tangled web of
intrigue, plotting, alliances, religion, war, deceit, royal marriage There were
Roundheads and Cavaliers, Cromwell, 11 years of revolution and over thrown
monarchy, Charles I executed, Bonnie Dundee, Jacobites challenges.
histories are written by the victor and this is far crazier than any Game of
|King James VII|
and Mary, and later Queen Ann (who were daughters of James VII first marriage)
had no surviving children, and to have a Protestant monarch, the English
parliament sent for George of Hanover (1714) – a descendent of James VI’s
daughter). This meant the Stuarts (who had ruled in Scotland for 300 years) and
that King James VII was the last Catholic monarch.
|James Francis Edward|
were over religion and power in Europe. There was the alliance of the Dutch and
English navys. Bonnie Prince Charlie
held court in Holyrood for a brief moment in September 1745. Its’ a tragic
story. The Jacobites made it down to Derby, but turned back and were defeated
Back in 18th
century the British Establishment committed terrible crimes to protect their
selfish interests – such as the massacre of Glencoe, repression of highland
culture – the wearing of highland dress was forbidden punishable by imprisonment
bizarrely in 1844 George IV came up
to Edinburgh in a shot kilt and pink stockings! –first monarch to visit in 150
years - and they would now ‘allow’ the
kilt to be worn. It was an insult.
Charles I was the second son of James VI. His son
was Charles II. James VII Scotland and II of England was the
last Catholic king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He took over the throne
after the death of his brother Charles II. He ruled for 4 years and was over
thrown in the Glorious revolution of 1688 when he fled to France. He was
replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary
and her husband William of Orange.
attempted to reclaim his crown in 1689 when he landed in Ireland. The Jacobite
forces were defeated by the Williamites at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690.
time of Union of the Parliaments in 1707, only about 5% of the Scottish
population had a vote. It may have been a kind of union, as back then Scotland
had a third of the UK population ! Since then the depopulation and wastage of Scotland
resources means Scotland now has 8% of the UK population. Scotland is now a
colony ruled from London (even though they have allowed use limited power
*1689 first Jacobite challenge
William and Mary 1659 – 1694
*1689 First Jacobite Challenge,
Viscount (Bonnie) Dundee and Battle of Killiecrankie
*Union of Parliaments – 1707
English Act of Settlement 1701
1704 Scottish (Act of security Scotland ) Articles of
* Second Jacobite challenge 1708
*1715 Third Jacobite challenge
* Fourth Jacobite challenge 1719
*Fifth and final 1745 Jacobite challenge, Bonnie Prince
George VI visit Edinburgh 1822. First monarch in 170
Reformation 16th century.