Showing posts with label charles I. Show all posts
Showing posts with label charles I. Show all posts

Sunday 29 September 2019

Did Revolution happen here too soon?

Did Revolution happen here too soon?
Did revolution in the UK happen a hundred years too early? 

In 1649, Charles Stuart I (who wanted to impose bishops and the Anglican bible on a Presbyterian and Protestant Scotland) had his head chopped off. At this time the Thirty Years religious wars raged across Europe. 

Then in 1651, his son Charles II was crowned at Scone Scotland with the understanding he would adopt the Scottish Presbyterian religion. (however he went back on his word. 
Then with the Scots help to reclaim his throne, Charles II was defeated at the battle of Worcester in 1651 – where he hid in an oak tree and went into exile in France. 

The UK became a Republic from 1653 to 1658, Cromwell ruled with an iron will and with his aggressive model army. Thomas Cromwell set himself up in as mini dictatorship and so people wanted the monarchy back after he died, as a civilizing force?

As Charles Stuart II had no heirs, after him we had James Stuart VII, William and Mary, Ann, George of Hanover. (the grandson of Elizabeth Stuart)
All this was over 100 years before the more authentic People Reform movements of the late 18thcentury, 1790s, who advocated votes for all men – when only 0.12% of land owning men had a vote. The 18thcentury saw the age of the great Enlightenment writers – yes the Pen is really mightier than the sword!  
There were the great Revolutionary wars of America (1775 – 1783) and France. The British authorities were terrified these movements would develop here too – they did, but they were crushed forcibly by deportation. Robert Burns wrote the Tree of Liberty.  Britain did not give universal suffrage until 1928, long after America and France. The British establishment learned about crushing others after Culloden and destroying the Highland culture. 

The British belief in elites endures to this day - in Scotland less so, although some buy into the lies. It strongly appears that England is on a difficult trajectory now to Scotland and has been for some time now and the strains and cracks are self–evident for all to see. No matter how often BoJo calls us the ‘Awesome Foursome’, his flattery words are meaningless.

Since the printing press, Scotland has been bombarded with unionist propaganda. The question must not be – how can I join the elite, but how can we stop the elite! I’ve wondered why Norway, when they voted for their indy were over 80% in favour? Nearly all of Norway saw no advantage to being run from Stockholm. Yet in Scotland we were only at 20%, now nearly 50% in favour of not having London politicians make our decisions for us. In part it’s a result of decades of Daily Mail and BBC propaganda; and the Jon Prebble books of Scottish victimhood. Plus Scottish history and heritage has been side-lined and ignored. 

This week the UKs Supreme court made a historic decision, that PM Johnson's Prorogation of parliament was illegal. They based their decision on the Scottish Claim of Rights 1689 (an later the English Bill of Rights) to limit the power of the monarch. - based on the teaching of Philosopher George Buchanan.
How can we really expect and Eton educated Londoner to get Scotland, or to really understand or care for Scottish issues? He can appoint some posh secretary of state as his lackey here, but its all unsustainable. But its also a long waiting game and we need patience. 

Thank goodness the Supreme court has defended the sovereignty of Parliament. (the BBC ignored Joanna Cherry and the Scottish case) focusing instead on Gina Miller’s case. Some Brexiteers claim that BoJo speaks for democracy and the people, and that he needs to By pass parliament... This is scary dictators talk! 

In America there are 3 seats of power – the senate, congress, and the presidency – the rule of law and a free press. The UK has an early out-dated form off democracy and only granted universal suffrage in 1928. The UK requires and elected second chamber, an elected head of state. It also requires the law to defend a more balanced and locally owned press, and a balanced state broadcaster that is impartial.

Sunday 30 June 2019

When Covenanters Ruled (1581 – 1651)

I’ve always been fascinated by the histories of the ScottishCovenanters. Who were they and why were they so important? Interestingly,  part of the Covenanters, the Cameroonians were major part of the American revolutionary wars. 
The first major Covenant was signed during the Scottish Reformation of 1560, which was to work tirelessly over the nest centuries to establish the Presbyterian church of Scotland. The main group of reformers were known as the Covenanters, with a more extreme off shoot known as the Cameroons, who eventually settled in America and were a major part of the American revolutionary wars (1765 - 1783) 
Their intentions was to keep James Vl on the throne and bring him up “in the fear of God” – the young king was famously educated by the fierce Presbyterian intellectual, poet and writer George Buchanan, who was not averse to a touch of corporal punishment on the royal behind. Although later not only James VI and his ill-fated son Charles I, both attempted to reintroduce rule by the Bishops and to Anglicise the Scottish church. This was massively rejected.  The National Covenant of 1638 was a stunning gesture of defiance and independence against the King, and its implications for the Stuart monarchy were long lasting, not least because it was a genuine mass movement – some 300,000 people signed it. This led not only to civil war but to the war of the Three Kingdoms.

From 1581 – 1651 - The Covenanters were the government of Scotland. The Covenants bound them to the protestant faith. – Scots confession of faith 1560. (signed by James VI)  1637 – Charles I and archbishop of Canterbury imposed rule of bishops., which led to a riot in St Giles, started by Jenny Geddes.  
The National Covenant signed in 1638. Drawn up and signed at Greyfriars graveyard. 1640 adopted by the Scotch Parliament.  The Covenanters raised an army to resists Charles I religious reforms, defeated him in Bishops war. 
This crisis led to the War of the Three kingdoms, which lasted ten years. 
The English Parliament asked for Scots help. They agreed on condition that the Scottish system of church government was adopted in England 1643,

*The Solemn League and Covenant Treaty - to preserve the reformed religion of Scotland. The Scottish armies were important in the victory over the king.
Civil War Scotland - 1644 – 1647
Royalist who opposed the Covenanters took up arms (Episcopalian) led by John Graham, 1stMarquis of Montrose.  Divisions between religions, Royalists, Covenanters – and the Highland and Lowlands Covenanters. Charles I surrendered but refused to sign the covenant.
Covenanters were divided. – Kirk party , more militant  and rejected any engagement with Charles I.  (1647). Their army invaded England but was defeated at the Battle of Preston. This left Kirk party in charge – and this led to war with English parliament. 

The Covenanters were defeated by Oliver Cromwell 1650 – 1652., and his new model Army, who marched as far north as Dunnottar castle Stonehaven.
Charles Ii signed the Treaty of Breda 1660 and declared oath to Covenanters, and had his coronation at Scone. After Charles II Restoration 1661, he renounced the Covenanters and had the Episcopacy and Bishops restored. To stop unrest south west Scotland, Covenanters rebellion, the government brought down 6000 highland troops. 

The Covenanters fought and defeated John Graham of Claverhouse – 1679 Rebellion – but were defeated at Bothwell Brig. 1200 captured and taken to Edinburgh and 400 imprisoned Greyfriars kirkyard.

The Covenanters split – and Cameroonians, who had more extreme positions. To stamp out sedition, the UK government ordered field executions without trail. This is known as The Killing Time
The Cameroonians supported William of Orange, who summoned a convention of estates. 1689 in Edinburgh. The Cameroonian guard helped to defeat the Jacobite highlanders, at the battle of Dunkeld. They were disappointed when William did not adapt their religion and Covenanters. They formed the United Societies. 

The Covenanters migrated to North America by way of Ireland - fleeing persecution they set up churches in Ireland and north America. In 1717, the preacher William Tennent founded Log College, the first Presbyterian seminary (reformed Presbyterian church) The Covenanters were among the first vocal agitators for independence from Great Britain and volunteered as soldiers. They also opposed to slavery.  (there are monuments to the Killing Time)
Although the king defeated their attempts to dictate the religion of his subjects, Presbyterianism became the established religion of Scotland.  

Friday 19 January 2018

Jacobites: Myth and Legend

Bonnie Prince Charlie held court in Holyrood for a brief moment 

The last of the Stuarts. Three Jacobite Kings buried St Peters Basilica Rome. One dynasty, two courts. Three kingdoms. Four Jacobite kings. Five Jacobite challenges. Through the mists of time, romance, place, beliefs, tragedy…. I visited the excellent Jacobite exhibition at the Scottish National Museum. 

*Union of the Crowns  - 1603
James VI became King of England, Ireland and Scotland.
Gunpowder plot 1605
Charles I crowned 1633 - 1649
Covenanters 1638
Charles I executed 1649
Roundheads and Cavaliers. Cromwell. – Lord Protector 1653.
Charles II – crowned 1660 - 1685.
James VII 1685 – 1689
Bonnie Dundee
Mary of Modena

I was reading of our history over the past centuries – of our close ties, trade and involvement with Europe – well before the EU and well before the1603 Union of the Crowns.
If you read the monarchy entanglement over that century and into the 18th century, what a tangled web of intrigue, plotting, alliances, religion, war, deceit, royal marriage There were Roundheads and Cavaliers, Cromwell, 11 years of revolution and over thrown monarchy, Charles I executed, Bonnie Dundee, Jacobites challenges. 

Most histories are written by the victor and this is far crazier than any Game of Thrones!
King James VII
Basically(?)  William and Mary, and later Queen Ann (who were daughters of James VII first marriage) had no surviving children, and to have a Protestant monarch, the English parliament sent for George of Hanover (1714) – a descendent of James VI’s daughter). This meant the Stuarts (who had ruled in Scotland for 300 years) and that King James VII was the last Catholic monarch.
James Francis Edward
The wars were over religion and power in Europe. There was the alliance of the Dutch and English navys. Bonnie Prince Charlie held court in Holyrood for a brief moment in September 1745. Its’ a tragic story. The Jacobites made it down to Derby, but turned back and were defeated at Culloden.

Back in 18th century the British Establishment committed terrible crimes to protect their selfish interests – such as the massacre of Glencoe, repression of highland culture – the wearing of highland dress was forbidden punishable by imprisonment or transportation.
Then bizarrely in 1844 George IV came up to Edinburgh in a shot kilt and pink stockings! –first monarch to visit in 150 years -  and they would now ‘allow’ the kilt to be worn. It was an insult.

Charles I was the second son of James VI. His son was Charles II.  James VII Scotland and II of England was the last Catholic king of England, Scotland and Ireland. He took over the throne after the death of his brother Charles II. He ruled for 4 years and was over thrown in the Glorious revolution of 1688 when he fled to France. He was replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange.
James attempted to reclaim his crown in 1689 when he landed in Ireland. The Jacobite forces were defeated by the Williamites at the Battle of the Boyne in July 1690.

At the time of Union of the Parliaments in 1707, only about 5% of the Scottish population had a vote. It may have been a kind of union, as back then Scotland had a third of the UK population ! Since then the depopulation and wastage of Scotland resources means Scotland now has 8% of the UK population. Scotland is now a colony ruled from London (even though they have allowed use limited power Scottish parliament)
George IV

*1689 first Jacobite challenge
William and Mary 1659 – 1694
*1689 First Jacobite Challenge,
Viscount (Bonnie) Dundee and Battle of Killiecrankie 1689
Battle of the Boyne 1690
Massacre Glencoe - 1692

*Union of Parliaments – 1707
Ann 1707 – 1714
English Act of Settlement 1701
1704 Scottish (Act of security Scotland ) Articles of Union.
1713 Treaty of Utrecht

* Second Jacobite challenge 1708
GEORGE I crowned - 1714
*1715 Third Jacobite challenge
Battle of Sherriffmuir
* Fourth Jacobite challenge 1719
Rob Roy MacGregor
*Fifth and final 1745 Jacobite challenge, Bonnie Prince Charlie

George VI visit Edinburgh 1822. First monarch in 170 years!
Reformation 16th century.