Showing posts with label denmark. Show all posts
Showing posts with label denmark. Show all posts

Tuesday, 30 November 2021

Some Nations are Prepared for Climate Emergency

Some nations have been preparing sustainable, circular and resilient economies for decades now! A good example is Norway, who gained their independence in 1905, from Sweden. (Norway celebrates its Constitution Day May 22 each year, after its 400 year union with Denmark which ended in 1814). Not only did they manage their oil and gas efficiently (taking out 100% rather than 50% as in the UK) they built up a pension oil fund for Norwegians of one trillion. Norway has also built their towns beside waterfalls for green Hydro energy, so they only rely on Gas for a mere 5% of their energy supply. They also run their own Norwegian energy company, rather then being exploited by giant global oil companies.

Denmark focused on funding renewable innovations 20 years ago and now leads the way with the manufacture of wind turbines and wave power, worth 70 billion to their economy. While Germany has focused on well insulated homes and solar energy. Scotland is hosting the world’s largest wind farm Aberdeen and testing the world’s largest tidal farm Moray Firth, and offers ideal locations, but because of the UKs lack of investment Scotland is sadly missing out on the future of the Renewables industry.

Meanwhile Scotland also has poorly insulated homes, so there’s no clear solution here in the UK at all. All the talk of heat pumps will not work for most homes, without an electric backup system. There’s been no long term planning, for a greener, sustainable future by the UK government - but rather an ignorant recklessness, which results from the confrontational and divisive nature of UK politics.

And the richest 1% waste money on needless luxuries such as space rockets and avoid paying tax – have they no shame? While our world burns and floods….. have they no shame? Instead of selling weapons of war, the UK should focus on the future of our planet! The richest must be answerable for their careless, unthinking attitudes. This includes the uncaring Tories.

The richest nations, must give back and pay for the cost for the exploitation of the poorest nations. And what of China and India? The future will be renewables, not dirty, polluting fossil fuels. Where is any moral compass? I’d hope to see more women leaders who will promote a more rounded well being society – instead of nations at war. The UK is the biggest seller of arms.

While the world is better connected, globalization and the internet has led to a dark side, with dark money and dark forces lobbying, and corruption is undermining our democracy. Its essential we fight back. Dark money has led to extreme right wing, controlling populism (such as Brexit).

The arts and culture were excluded from COP26. Even while it’s the arts that change hearts and minds, and not number crunchers! (SNP take note!). Change often does not happen because of number crunching or even “facts”, but because we imagine better! There are two songs that speak volumes about humanity's reckless exploitations – one by the Bob Dylan who grew up who grew up under the threat of the bomb, and he wrote his haunting 'Masters of War' and the other by Robert Burns who grew up with the threat of war with France when he wrote 'Westlin Winds'.

Friday, 23 December 2016

Norway's Independence

Scotland is often compared to Norway - in terms of population, oil, geography, long coastline, domination by an external power and more...
Norway was for 430 years tied to a union (due to Royal manoeuvrings much like here in the UK) first with Denmark and then with Sweden) For centuries Copenhagen was the cultural and business capital. Some of the union worked well with Norway trading wood, fish to Denmark. Eventually though in 1905 , Norway negotiated a peaceful separation from Sweden. It is not possible that Norway would ever wish to go back! Norway has a long border with Sweden too (just like Scotland and England) and both countries appear to manage their own sovereignty.

The Union with Denmark lasted between 1388 – 1814) – 434 years.
“Known as the 400-Year-Night.” Norway joined the Kalmar Union of all the Nordic countries ( ) in 1388.
The KALMAR UNION 1388 - King Magnus VII ruled Norway to 1350 when his son became Haakon VI. He married Margaret, daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark. In 1379 his son Olaf IV, at ten, accession to both the thrones of Norway and Denmark led to a personal union. Olaf's mother, Queen Margaret, managed the affairs of Denmark and Norway and wanted a union with Sweden, by having Olaf elected to the Swedish throne. Olaf IV died suddenly in 1388 and Denmark and Norway crowned Margaret as a temporary ruler. Queen Margaret decided on Eric of Pomeria, grandson of her sister to be king. Thus at an all-Scandinavian meeting held at Kalmar, Eric was elected King of the Scandinavian countries. Royal politics resulted in personal unions between all the Nordic countries and the thrones of Norway, Denmark and Sweden were under the control of Queen Margaret - known as the KALMAR UNION. (In 1521 Sweden broke out of the UNION)

The "400-Year Night” - Norway remained in a union with Denmark until 1814, a total of 434 years. In the 19th century, the national romanticism was known as the "400-Year Night", since the kingdom’s entire royal, intellectual and administrative power was centred in Copenhagen Denmark. Denmark supported Norway's needs for grain and food supplies, while Norway supplied Denmark with timber, metal, and fish. A great famine of 1695–96 killed 10% of Norway's population. The harvest failed in Scandinavia at least nine times between 1740 and 1800, with great loss of life. After Denmark–Norway was attacked by the UK in the Battle of Copenhagen, it entered into an alliance with Napoleon. Denmark lost in 1814, and ceded Norway to the king of Sweden, while the old Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown. 

**Norway took this opportunity to declare independence and adopted a constitution based on American and French models, and elected the Crown Prince of Denmark and Norway, Christian Frederick king in 1814. This is the famous Syttende Mai (Seventeenth of May) holiday celebrated by Norwegians and is the Norwegian Constitution Day.
Norwegian-Swedish War and Union with Sweden 1814 - Norwegian opposition to the great powers' decision to link Norway with Sweden caused war to break out. Sweden's military was not strong enough to defeat the Norway and Norway's treasury was not large enough to support a long war. British and Russian navies blockaded the Norwegian coast. They were forced to negotiate Convention of Moss and Union with Sweden. Christian Frederik abdicated the Norwegian throne and authorised the Parliament of Norway to make the necessary constitutional amendments to allow for the Personal union that Norway was forced to accept. On 4 November 1814 the Parliament (Storting) elected Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway.

Norwegian romantic nationalism - Norway kept its own liberal, independent institutions except for the foreign service. Following the recession caused by the Napoleonic Wars, economic development of Norway remained slow until economic growth began around 1830.  Norwegians sought to define and express a distinct national character. The movement covered all branches of culture, including literature Henrik Wegeland[1808–1845], Biomstierne Biomson[1832–1910], Peter Christen Asbionsen[1812–1845], Jergen Moe [1813–1882]), painting Hans Gude[1825–1903], Adolph Tidemand[1814–1876]), music Edvard Grieg [1843–1907]), and even language policy, where attempts to define a native written language for Norway led to today's two official written forms for Norwegian: Bokmai and Nynorsk.

King Charles III John, throne Norway and Sweden 1818 - 1844, was the second king after Norway's union with Sweden. He protected the constitution and liberties but he was also ruthless in the use of paid informers, secret police and restrictions on the freedom of the press to put down public movements for reform— in particular the Norwegian national independence movement.
**Dissolution of the union 1905 - Christian Michelsen, a shipping magnate and PM of Norway, 1905 - 1907, played a crucial role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden in 1905. A national referendum confirmed the people's preference for a monarchy. No Norwegian could legitimately claim the throne because none was able to prove relationship to medieval royalty and in European tradition royal or "blue" blood is a precondition for laying claim to the throne. The government offered the throne of Norway to a prince of the German royal House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glucksburg. Prince Carl of Denmark was unanimously elected king by the Norwegian parliament, the first king of a fully independent Norway in 508 years (1397: Kalmar Union). He took the name Haakon VII. In 1905, the country welcomed the prince from neighbouring Denmark, his wife Maud of Wales and their young son to re-establish Norway's royal house. Following centuries of close ties between Norway and Denmark.

Norway is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world. From 1814, c. 45% of men (25 years and older) had the right to vote, whereas the United Kingdom had c. 20% (1832), Sweden c. 5% (1866), and Belgium c. 1.15% (1840). Since 2010, Norway has been classified as the world's most democratic country by the Democratic Index.